Unit 125 By

  A

  • 수단·방법의 by:
        send something by mail     contact somebody by phone / by e-mail / by fax
        do something by hand       pay by check / by credit card
    • Can I pay by credit card?
    • You can contact me by phone, by fax, or by e-mail.
  • 현금으로 지불하는 경우는 pay cash 또는 pay in cash (not by cash) 입니다.
    by mistake / by accident / by chance = (원인·이유) …으로(인해)
    • We hadn’t arranged to meet. We met by chance.
  • 고의로 한 경우에는 “do something on purpose” (= you mean to do it):
    • I didn’t do it on purpose. It was an accident.
  • by check, by chance (not by the chance / by a check)등의 경우에 관사(a/an, the)를 사용하지 않습니다.

  B

  • 교통·전달 수단의 by:
        by car / by train / by plane / by boat / by ship / by bus / by bike, etc.
        by road / by rail / by air / by sea / by subway
    • Joanne usually goes to work by bus.
    • Do you prefer to travel by plane or by train?
  • 그러나, on foot = 걸어서:
    • Did you come here by car or on foot?
  • my car / the train / a taxi 등은 by 를 사용할 수 없습니다.¹ by + 명사(noun) 구조에는 소유격이나 관사를 사용할 수 없습니다.
        by car   but   in my car (not by my car)
        by train   but   on the train (not by the train)
    자동차(car) 와 택시는 in 을 사용합니다.
    • They didn’t come in their car. The came in a taxi.
  • 자전거와 대중 교통 수단(buses, trains, etc.)에는 on 을 사용합니다.
    • We came on the 6:45 train.

 § ¹ by 뒤에서 교통·통신기관을 나타내는 명사는 관사가 없지만, 특정의 시간을 나타내거나 명사가 형용사로 수식되거나 할 때에는 관사를 사용합니다: by an early train 새벽 열차로 / by the 6:30 train, 6시 30분발 열차로.

  C

  • “something is done by somebody/something” (수동) = [동작의 주체] …에 의해서, …에 의한:
    • Have you ever been bitten by a dog?
    • The program was watched by millions of people.
  • bywith 의 비교²:
    • The door must have been opened with a key. (not by a key) (= somebody used a key to open it)
    • The door must have been opened by somebody with a key.
  • “a play by Shakespeare” / “a painting by Rembrandt” / “a novel by Tolstoy,” etc. = …작(作):
    • Have you read anything by Ernest Hemingway?

 § ² by 로 동작의 주체를 나타내고, with 로 수단으로 사용된 도구를 나타냅니다.

  D

  • …의 옆에, …의 곁에, …의 근방에(next to / beside)를 뜻하는 by:
    • Come and sit by me. (= beside me)
    • “Where’s the light switch?”  “By the door.”

  E

  • by = (정도·차이) …만큼, …의 차이로:
    • Claire’s salary has just gone up from $3,000 a month to $3,300. So it has increased by $300 / by 10 percent.
    • Carl and Mike ran a 100-meter race. Carl won by about three meters.

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