Unit 117 By and until | By the time . . .


  • by (+ a time) = no later than, (어느 시점) …까지, …보다 늦지 않게:
    • I sent the letter to them today, so they should receive it by Monday. (= on or before Monday, no later than Monday)
    • We’d better hurry. We have to be home by 5:00. (= at or before 5:00, no later than 5:00)
    • Where’s Sue? She should be here by now. (= now or before now – so she should have arrived already)


  • until (or till) 은 어떤 상황이 얼마나 오래 계속 되는지 표현합니다.
    • “Shall we go now?”  “No, let’s wait until (or till) it stops raining.”
    • I couldn’t get up this morning. I stayed in bed until half past ten. / I didn’t get up until half past ten.
  • untilby 의 비교:
    until : 미래의 시점까지 …이 계속되는 것 by : 미래의 시점까지 …이 일어나는 것
    • Fred will be away until Monday.
      (so he’ll be back on Monday)
    • Fred will be back by Monday.
      (= he’ll be back no later than Monday)
    • I’ll be working until 11:30.
      (so I’ll stop working at 11:30)
    • I’ll have finished my work by 11:30.
      (I’ll finish my work no later than 11:30)

 § by 는 (미래의 어느 때)까지(는)이라는 동작·행위의 완료 시점을 나타내는 데 비해 until 은 (미래의 어느 때)까지 계속되는 상태의 마침을 나타냅니다. 따라서 by 는 계속을 뜻하는 동사, until 은 순간을 나타내는 동사와 함께 사용하지 않습니다.
  - He will come by noon. / He slept until noon.


  • by the time something happens = …할 때쯤[이면]:
    • It’s too late to go to the bank now. By the time we get there, it will be closed. (= the bank will close between now and the time we get there)
    • (from a postcard) Our vacation ends tomorrow. So by the time you receive this postcard, I’ll be back home. (= I will arrive home between now and the time you receive this postcard)
    • Hurry up! By the time we get to the theater, the play will already have started.
  • by the time something happened (과거)= …했을 때쯤[이면]:
    • Karen’s car broke down on the way to the party last night. By the time she arrived, most of the other guests had left. (= It took her a long time to get to the party, and most of the guests left during this time.)
    • I had a lot of work to do last night. I was very tired by the time I finished. (= It took me a long to do the work, and I became more and more tired during this time.)
    • We went to the theater last night. It took us a long time to find a place to park. By the time we got to the theater, the play had already started.
  • by then  or  by that time = 그무렵에는, 그때[까지]는:
    • Karen finally arrived at the party at midnight, but by then (or by that time), most of the guests had left.

  Creative Commons License
  이 저작물은 크리에이티브 커먼즈 저작자표시-비영리-변경금지 4.0 국제 라이선스에 따라 이용할 수 있습니다.