Unit 95 -ing and -ed Phrases (the woman talking to Tom, the boy injured in the accident)


  • 구(句, phrase)는 문장의 일부이며 -ing 혹은 -ed 로 시작하는 경우가 있습니다.
    Do you know the woman talking to Tom?
    The boy injured in the accident was taken to the hospital.
    위의 예문에서 talking to Tom-ing phrase 이고, injured in the accident-ed phrase 입니다.


  • -ing phrase 로 누군가가(어떤것이) 특정한 시간에 하고 있는(있던) 것을 표현합니다.
    • Do you know the woman talking to Sam? (the woman is talking to Sam)
    • Police investigating the crime are looking for three men. (police are investigating the crime)
    • Who were those people waiting outside? (they were waiting)
    • I was awakened by a bell ringing. (a bell was ringing)
  • -ing phrase 로 특정한 시간에 일어나는 일이 아닌 항상 일어나는 일을 표현할 수 있습니다.
    • The road connecting the two towns is very narrow. (the road connects the two towns)
    • I have a large bedroom overlooking the garden. (the bedroom overlooks the garden)
    • Can you think of the name of a flower beginning with “t”? (the name begins with “t”)


  • -ed phrase 는 수동의 의미입니다.
    • The boy injured in the accident was taken to the hospital. (he was injured in the accident)
    • George showed me some pictures painted by his father.
      (they had been painted by his father)
  • 위의 예문에서 injuredpainted 는 과거분사(past participle)입니다. stolen/made/written-ed 형태가 아닌 불규칙변화동사의 과거분사들이 많이 있습니다.
    • The police never found the money stolen in the robbery.
    • Most of the goods made in this factory are exported.
  • “사용되지 않은채 아직도 그곳에 남겨진(not used, still there)”의 의미로 left 를 다음과 같이 사용할 수 있습니다.
    • We’ve eaten almost all the chocolates. There are only a few left.


  • there is / there was 등으로 시작하는 문장에 -ing-ed phrase 를 자주 사용합니다.
    • There were some children swimming in the river.
    • Is there anybody waiting?
    • There was a big red car parked outside the house.

 § 분사와 분사구문은 ggoogi’s Grammar 분사 참조.

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