Unit 49 Auxiliary Verbs (have/do/can, etc) | I think so / I hope so, etc.


  • 다음의 각 예문에는 두개의 동사가 있습니다.
    The hotel
    do you
    my keys.
    to the party.
    ten years ago.
  • 위의 예문에서 have/can’t/was/do 가 조동사(auxiliary verb)입니다.
    반복을 피하기 위해서 조동사만을 사용할 수 있습니다.
    • “Have you locked the door?”  “Yes, I have.” (= I have locked the door)
    • George wasn’t working, but Janet was. (= Janet was working)
    • She could lend me the money, but she won’t. (= she won’t lend me the money)
  • 단순현재형단순과거형에서 반복을 피하기 위해서 do/does/did 를 사용합니다.
    • “Do you like onions?”  “Yes, I do.” (= I like onions)
    • “Does Mark play soccer?”  “Yes, he did, but he doesn’t anymore.”
  • 조동사만을 사용해서 상대방의 말을 부정하는 대답으로 사용할 수 있습니다. (= say it is not true)
    • “You’re sitting in my place.”  “No, I’m not.” (= I’m not sitting in your place)
    • “You didn’t lock the door before you left.”  “Yes, I did.” (= I locked the door)


  • You have? / She isn’t? / They do? 등으로 누군가 말한 것에 대해서 관심을 표현합니다.
    • “I’ve just seen David.”  “You have? How is he?”
    • “Liz isn’t feeling very well today.”  “She isn’t? What’s wrong with her?”
    • “It rained every day during our vacation.”  “It did? What a shame!”
    • “Jim and Karen are getting married.”  “They are? Really?”


  • soneither 은 조동사를 사용합니다.
    • “I’m tired.”  “So am I.” (= I’m tired, too)
    • “I never read newspapers.”  “Neither do I.” (= I never read newspapers either)
    • Sue doesn’t have a car, and neither does Mark.
  • soneither 다음의 주어와 동사가 도치 되는 것에 주의:
    • I passed the exam, and so did Paul. (not so Paul did)
  • neither 대신에 not . . . either 을 사용할 수 있습니다.
    • “I don’t have any money.”  “Neither do I.”  or  “I don’t either.”

  D     I think so / I hope so, etc.

  • 반복을 피하기 위해 so 를 사용할 수 있는 동사:
    • “Are those people Australian?”  “I think so.” (= I think they are Australian.)
    • “Will you be home tomorrow morning?”  “I guess so.” (= I guess I’ll be home . . .)
    • “Do you think Kate has been invited to the party?”  “I suppose so.
  • I hope so, I’m afraid so 도 가능합니다.
    부정형은 다음과 같습니다.
        I think so  →  I don’t think so
        I hope so / I’m afraid so / I guess so  →  I hope not / I’m afraid not / I guess not
        I suppose so  →  I suppose not
    • “Is that woman French?”  “I think so. / I don’t think so.
    • “Do you think it will rain?”  “I hope so. / I hope not.” (not I don’t hope so)

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