Unit 40 Passive 1 (is done / was done)

 수동태  1

  A

  • 다음의 예를 보겠습니다.
    This house was built in 1935.
    was built 가 수동태(passive)입니다.
    능동태(active)와 수동태(passive) 비교:
    Somebody built this house in 1935. (능동태)
    This house was built in 1935. (수동태)
    능동태 문장 목적어 ⇔ 수동태 문장 주어
  • 능동태는 주어의 동작을 표현합니다.
    • My grandfather was a builder. He built this house in 1935.
    • It’s a big company. It employs two hundred people.
  • 수동태는 주어에게 일어나는 (what happens to the subject) 것을 표현합니다.
    • This house is quite old. It was built in 1935.
    • Two hundred people are employed by the company.

 § 수동태를 만드는 일반적인 규칙:
   S[주어] + V[동사] + O[목적어] (능동태)
   [목적어의 주격] + be + [동사의 과거분사] + by + [주어의 목적격] (수동태)

  B

  • 행동의 주체가 누군지 또는 무엇인지 알 수 없거나, 중요하지 않을 때 수동태를 사용합니다.
    • A lot of money was stolen in the robbery. (somebody stole it – 누가 훔쳤는지 모릅니다)
    • Is this room cleaned every day? (does somebody clean it? – 누가 청소하는지 중요하지 않습니다)
  • 행동의 주체가 누군지 또는 무엇인지 나타내는 경우에 by 를 사용합니다.
    • This house was built by my grandfather.
    • Two hundred people are employed by the company.

  C

  • 수동태는 be (is/was, etc.) + 과거분사(done/cleaned/seen, etc.)의 형태입니다.
        (be) done    (be) cleaned    (be) damaged    (be) built    (be) seen, etc.
    불규칙 동사의 과거분사(done/seen/known, etc.)는 Appendix 1 참조.
    단순현재형과 단순과거형의 수동태 비교:
    단순현재형
    능동: clean(s) / see(s), etc. Somebody cleans this room every day.
    수동: am/is/are + cleaned/seen, etc. This room is cleaned every day.
    • Many accidents are caused by careless driving.
    • I’m not often invited to parties.
    • How is this word pronounced?
    단순과거형
    능동: cleaned / saw, etc. Somebody cleaned this room yesterday.
    수동: was/were + cleaned/seen, etc. This room was cleaned yesterday.
    • We were woken up by a loud noise during the night.
    • “Did you go to the party?”  “No, I wasn’t invited.“
    • How much money was stolen in the robbery?

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