Unit 38 If I had known . . . | I wish I had known . . .


  • 다음의 예를 보겠습니다.
    Last month Brian was in the hospital for a few days. Liz didn’t know this, so she didn’t go to see him. They met a few days ago. Liz said:
    지난 달에 Brian 은 며칠간 입원을 했습니다. Liz 는 이 사실을 알지 못해서 입원한 Brian 에게 가보지 못했습니다. Liz 가 며칠 전에 Brian 을 만나서 말하길:
    If I had known you were in the hospital, I would have gone to see you.
    Liz 가 “If I had known you were in the hospital . . .” 이라고 말한 것을 보고 Brian 이 입원한 사실을 알지 못했던 것을 알 수 있습니다.
  • 가정법과거완료는 if + had (’d) . . . 의 형태(if I had known/been/done, etc.)로 과거를 표현합니다.
    • I didn’t see you when you passed me in the street. If I’d seen you, of course I would have said hello. (but I didn’t see you)
    • I didn’t go out last night. I would have gone out if I hadn’t been so tired. (but I was tired)
    • If he had been looking where he was going, he wouldn’t have walked into the wall.
      (but he wasn’t looking)
    • The view was wonderful. If I’d had a camera, I would have taken some pictures.
      (but I didn’t have a camera)
  • 비교:
    • I’m not hungry. If I was hungry, I would eat something. (now)
    • I wasn’t hungry. If I had been hungry, I would have eaten something. (past)

 § 현재 사실과 반대 – 가정법과거, 과거 사실과 반대 - 가정법과거완료.


  • 가정법과거완료의 if 절(조건절)에서는 would 를 사용하지 않습니다. 주절에서 would 를 사용합니다.
    • If I had seen you, I would have said hello. (not If I would have seen you)
  • ’dwould 혹은 had 의 축약형입니다.
    • If I’d seen you, (I’d seen = I had seen)
      I’d have said hello. (I’d have said = I would have said)


  • wish 다음에도 had (done) 형태의 가정법 과거완료를 사용합니다. I wish something had happened. = I am sorry that it didn’t happen. 과거에 일어나지 않은 일을 유감스럽게 생각하는 표현입니다.
    • I wish I’d known that Brian was sick. I would have gone to see him. (but I didn’t know)
    • I feel sick. I wish I hadn’t eaten so much cake. (I ate too much cake)
    • Do you wish you had studied science instead of languages? (You didn’t study science)
  • wish 다음에는 would have . . . 를 사용하지 않습니다.
    • The weather was cold on our vacation. I wish it had been warmer. (not I wish it would have been)



  • would (do) 와 would have (done) 의 비교:
    • If I had gone to the party last night, I would be tired now¹. (I am not tired now – present)
    • If I had gone to the party last night, I would have met lots of people. (I didn’t meet lots of people – past)
  • would have / could have / might have 비교:
    • If the weather hadn’t been so bad,
    we would have gone out.
    we could have gone out.
     (= we would have been able to go out)
    we might have gone out.
     (= perhaps we would have gone out)

 § ¹ 조건절에는 가정법과거완료, 주절에는 가정법과거를 사용하는 혼합가정법은 과거의 사실이 현재에 영향을 미치는 경우에 사용하고 주절에 반드시 현재(now)를 나타내는 표현을 사용합니다. "전에 …했더라면, 지금 …일텐데" 의 경우입니다. 위의 예문 해석 비교:
 ‐ "어제 밤 파티에 갔더라면 지금 피곤할거야."
 ‐ "어제 밤 파티에 갔더라면 많은 사람을 만났을거야."

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