Unit 30 Have to and must


  • I have to do something = 해야 할 필요가 있고, 반드시 해야 함(의무).¹
    • You can’t turn right here. You have to turn left.
    • I have to get up early tomorrow. My flight leaves at 7:30.
    • Jason can’t meet us tonight. He has to work late.
    • Last week Nicole broke her arm and had to go to the hospital.
    • Have you ever had to go to the hospital?
  • do/does/did 를 사용해서 have to 의 단순현재형/단순과거형의 의문문을 만듭니다.
    • What do I have to do to get a driver’s license? (not What have I to do?)
    • Does Kimberly have to work tomorrow?
    • Why did you have to leave early?
  • 부정문에서는 don’t/doesn’t/didn’t 를 사용합니다.²
    • I don’t have to get up early tomorrow. (not I haven’t to)
    • Kimberly doesn’t have to work on Saturdays.
    • We didn’t have to pay to park the car.
  • 용례:
      I’ll have to / I won’t have to . . .
      I’m going to have to . . .
      I might/may have to . . . (= perhaps I’ll have to)
    • They can’t fix my computer, so I’ll have to buy a new one.  or
      . . . so I’m going to have to buy a new one.
    • I might have to leave the meeting early.  or  I may have to leave . . .

 § ¹ 필요·의무를 표현하는 have to 의 용법은 비격식적인 의무를 표현하며, 「…해야 한다」의 표현입니다.
 § ² have to 의 부정은 don’t/doesn’t/didn’t have to 이며, 「의무」의 부정이 아닌 「필요」의 부정입니다. 「…을 할 필요가 있다」의 부정이므로 「…을 할 필요가 없다」이고 need not 과 같습니다.


  • musthave to 와 유사합니다.
    • The economic situation is bad. The government must do something about it.  or
      The government has to do . . .
    • If you go to New York, you really must visit the Empire State building.
      (or . . . you really have to visit . . .)
  • 그러나, 일반적으로 must 보다는 have to 를 더 많이 사용합니다.
    must 는 문서화된 규칙(혹은 법률)이나 지시사항 등에 주로 사용합니다.
    • Answer all the questions. You must write your answers in ink.
    • Applications for the job must be received by May 18.


  • You must not do something = it is necessary that you not do it (so don’t do it) 하지 말아야 할 필요가 있다. 즉, 하지 말 것:
    • Students must not use cell phones in class. (= it is not allowed)
  • must notdon’t/doesn’t have to 의 비교³:
    • You must keep this a secret. You must not tell anybody. (= don’t tell anybody)
    • You don’t have to tell Tim about what happened. I can tell him myself.
      (= you don’t need to tell him, but it’s OK if you do)

 § ³ must not 과 don’t have to 의 근본적인 차이는 「금지」와 「권고」의 차이입니다.


  • have to 가 단순현재형인 경우 have got to 로 사용할 수 있습니다.
    • I’ve got to work tomorrow.  or  I have to work tomorrow.
    • He’s got to visit his aunt tonight.  or  He has to visit his aunt tonight.

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