Unit 5 Past perfect and past simple


  • 과거에 차례로 일어난 일·사건을 서술하는 경우 단순과거형을 사용해서 순차적으로 표현하는 것이 일반적이지만, 먼저 언급한 일·사건 보다 전(before the last event in the sequence we have written or spoken about)에 일어난 것—순서에서 벗어난 것—을 표현하기 위해 과거완료형을 사용합니다.
    Don José was a wealthy Cuban landowner who emigrated to Mexico in 1959. The agricultural reforms had begun a few months before this. He moved again in 1965 and made his home in the United States. He had made his fortune in growing sugar cane as a young man in Cuba, and he brought his expertise to his new home.
    일·사건 발생 순서 1  made fortune
    2  reforms began
    3  emigrated to Mexico
    4  moved to U.S.
    일·사건 언급 순서 1  emigrated to Mexico
    2  reforms had begun (out of order)
    3  moved to U.S
    4  had made fortune (out of order)


  • 과거의 한 사건보다 먼저 일어난 사건에 대해 말하고 있는 것을 아는 경우에는 과거완료형을 계속해서 사용하지 않아도 됩니다.
    • We bought a new car last month. We’d driven my parents’ old car for ages, but it started (or had started) to fall apart. We put (or had put) a new engine in it, but that didn’t solve (or hadn’t solved) the problems we were having.


  • 시간을 나타내는 부사[구/절]등을 통해서 과거에 일어난 사건의 순서가 내용상 확실한 경우에는 단순과거형을 사용할 수도 있고 과거완료형을 사용할 수도 있습니다.
    • After Ivan had finished reading, he put out the light. (or …Ivan finished…)
    • They were given help and advice before they had made the decision. (or …they made…)
    • The two leaders agreed to meet, even though earlier talks had failed to reach an agreement. (or …talks failed…)

 § 문맥상 일·사건의 순서가 확실한 경우 과거완료형의 사용은 불필요합니다.


  • 현재완료형·단순과거형을 전달하는 경우(in reporting) 과거완료형을 주로 사용합니다. (Unit 35 참조)
    Talking about a past event Reporting this past event
    • ‘I have met him before.’
    • ‘The village hasn’t changed much.’
    • I was sure that I had met him before. (not …I met him…)
    • On my last visit to Wixton I found that the village hadn’t changed much. (not …the village didn’t change…)
    • ‘Smithers drowned in the recent floods.’
    • ‘She stole the watch.’
    • Police were convinced Smithers had drowned in the rrecent floods. (ordrowned…)
    • She admitted that she had stolen the watch. (orstole…)

 § 단순과거형을 전달하는 경우 사건의 순서가 명백하면 과거완료형 대신에 단순과거형을 사용할 수 있습니다.


  • 소망·기대·계획등의 의미를 갖고 있는 동사는 과거완료형·단순과거형(또는 과거완료진행형·과거진행형, Units 4 와 7 참조)을 사용해서 하려고 했지만 하지 않았거나, 혹은 현재 하지 않을 것에 대해 표현합니다.
    • I had hoped to visit the gallery before I left Florence, but it’s closed on Sundays. (or I hoped…, I was hoping…, I had been hoping…)
    • Bill planned to retire at 60, but we have persuaded him to stay for a few more years. (or Bill had planned…, Bill was planning…, Bill had been planning…)
  • consider + V-ing; expect to V; intend to V; mean to V; think about V-ing/of + V-ing 등의 동사도 이와 같이 사용합니다.

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