Unit 14 Past Perfect (I had done)



  • 다음의 예를 보겠습니다.
    Sarah went to a party last week. Eric went to the party, too, but they didn’t see each other. Eric left the party at 10:30, and Sarah got there at 11:00. So:
    지난 주에 Sarah 는 파티에 갔습니다. Eric 도 같은 파티에 갔지만 Sarah 와 Eric 은 만나지 못했습니다. Eric 이 10시 30분에 파티에서 떠났고, Sarah 는 11시에 파티에 도착했습니다. 그래서:
    When Sarah got to the party, Eric wasn’t there.
    Sarah 가 파티에 도착했을 때 Eric 은 파티에 없었습니다.
    He had gone home.
    Eric 은 (이미) 집에 가고 없었습니다.
    had gone 이 과거완료형입니다.
    had (= I’d, etc.)
    (= he’d, etc.)
    finished, etc.
  • 과거완료형은 had + 과거분사 (gone / seen / finished, etc.)의 형태입니다.
    과거에 일어난 사실을 다음과 같이 표현합니다.
    • Sarah got to the party.
  • 위와 같이 과거에 일어난 사실을 기점으로 하고, 그 시점보다 먼저 일어난 일을 표현하고자 할 때에는 과거완료형 (had . . . )을 사용합니다.
    • When Sarah arrived at the party, Eric had already gone home.
  • 위와 같은 예:
    • When we got home last night, we found that somebody had broken into our house.
    • Karen didn’t want to go to the movies with us because she’d already seen the film.
    • At first I thought I’d done the right thing, but I soon realized that I’d made a big mistake.
    • The man sitting next to me on the plane was very nervous. He hadn’t flown before.  or  . . . He had never flown before.


  • 현재완료형 (have seen, etc.)과 과거완료형 (had seen, etc.)의 비교:
    Present Perfect
    기준시점: 현재
    Past Perfect
    기준시점: 과거의 한 시점
    • Who is that woman? I’ve never seen her before.
    • I didn’t know who she was. I’d never seen her before. (= before that time)
    • We aren’t hungry. We’ve just had lunch.
    • We weren’t hungry. We’d just had lunch.
    • The house is dirty. They haven’t cleaned it for weeks.
    • The house was dirty. They hadn’t cleaned it for weeks.


  • 단순과거형 (left, was, etc.)과 과거완료형 (had left, had been, etc.)의 비교:
    • A: Was Tom there when you arrived?
      B: Yes, but he left a little later.
    • Amy wasn’t at home when I called. She was at her mother’s house.
    • A: Was Tom there when you arrived?
      B: No, he had already left.
    • Amy had just gotten home when I called. She had been at her mother’s house.

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