Unit 12 How long have you (been) . . . ?

  A

  • Bob and Alice are married. They got married exactly 20 years ago, so today is their 20th wedding anniversary. They have been married for 20 years.
    Bob 과 Alice 는 부부입니다. 정확하게 20년전 오늘 결혼했습니다. 그래서 오늘이 Bob 과 Alice 부부의 결혼 20주년 기념일입니다. 결혼 생활 20년입니다.
    They are married. (단순현재형) 그러나,
    How long have they been married? (현재완료형)
    (not How long are they married?)
    They have been married for 20 years.
    (not They are married for 20 years)
  • how long, for, since 와 현재완료형을 사용해서 과거에 시작해서 현재까지 계속되고 있는 것을 표현합니다. 단순현재형과 현재완료형의 비교:
    • Bill is in the hospital.  but
      He has been in the hospital since Monday. (not Bill is in the hospital since Monday)
    • Do you know each other well?  but
      Have you known each other for a long time? (not Do you know)
    • She’s waiting for somebody.  but
      She’s been waiting all morning.
    • Do they have a car?  but
      How long have they had their car?

  B

  • I have known/had/lived 등이 현재완료형 (present perfect simple)이고,
    I have been learning / been waiting / been doing 등이 현재완료진행형 (present perfect continuous)입니다.
    얼마나 오래(how long)를 묻거나 말하는 경우, 현재완료진행형을 주로 사용합니다. (Unit 10 참조)
    • I’ve been studying English for six months.
    • It’s been raining since lunchtime.
    • Richard has been doing the same job for 20 years.
    • How long have you been driving?”  “Since I was 17.”
  • know/like/believe 등의 동사는 진행형을 거의 사용하지 않습니다.
    • How long have you known Emily? (not have you been knowing)
    • I’ve had a stomachache all day. (not I’ve been having)
  • Unit 4AUnit 10C 참조. have 동사는 Unit 16A 참조.

  C

  • live/work 동사는 현재완료형과 현재완료진행형 중 어느 것을 사용해도 의미는 같습니다.
    • John has been living / has lived in Montreal for a long time.
    • How long have you been working / have you worked here?
  • 그러나, always 를 사용한 문장에는 현재완료형(I’ve lived / I’ve done, etc.)을 사용합니다.
    • Have you always lived in the country? (not always been living)

  D

  • “I haven’t done something since/for . . .”: 부정문의 경우 현재완료형을 사용합니다.
    • I haven’t seen Tom since Monday. (= Monday was the last time I saw him.)
    • Sue hasn’t called for ages. (= The last time she called was ages ago.)

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