Unit 7 Present Perfect (I have done)

 현재완료형

  A

  • Dave: Have you traveled a lot, Jane?
    Jane: Yes, I’ve been to lots of places.
    Dave: Really? Have you ever been to China?
    Jane: Yes, I’ve been to China twice.
    Dave: What about India?
    Jane: No, I haven’t been to India.
    have/has + traveled/been/done (과거분사; past participle) 의 형태가 현재완료형입니다.
    I/we/they/you have (= I’ve, etc.)
    he/she/it has (= he’s, etc.)
    traveled
    been
    done, etc.
  • 과거분사는 주로 -ed (traveled/decided, etc.)의 형태지만 been/done/written 처럼 불규칙한 동사도 있습니다. Appendix 1 참조.

 § been (to) = visited; 갔다가 온 것을 표현합니다.
  - I’ve never been to China. Have you been there?

  B

  • 과거에서 현재까지 계속되는 기간에 일어난 일에 대해 말하고자 할 때 현재완료형을 사용합니다. A 의 예문에서 Jane 과 Dave 는 Jane 이 태어나서 지금까지 가본 곳에 대해 말합니다. 현재까지 계속되는 모든 기간입니다.
    • Have you ever eaten caviar? (in your life)
    • We’ve never had a car.
    • Have you read Hamlet?”  “No, I haven’t read any of Shakespeare’s plays.”
    • Susan really loves that movie. She’s seen it eight times!
    • What a boring movie! It’s the most boring movie I’ve ever seen.

 § 과거의 경험이 현재까지 이어지고 있는 것을 보여주는 현재완료형의 용법입니다.

  C

  • recently / in the last few days / so far / since breakfast 등의 현재까지 지속되고 있는 기간에 일어난 상황의 표현입니다.
    • Have you heard from Brian recently?
    • I’ve met a lot of people in the last few days.
    • Everything is going well. We haven’t had any problems so far.
    • I’m hungry. I haven’t eaten anything since breakfast.
    • It’s nice to see you again. We haven’t seen each other for a long time.

 § 계속을 나타내는 현재완료형: 상태가 계속된 것을 표현하고, 동작이 계속된 경우에는 현재완료진행형을 사용합니다.
  - He has been dead for seven years.
    = It is [has been] seven years since he died.
    = Seven years have passed since he died.
    = He died seven years ago.

  D

  • today / this morning / this year 등과 같이 말을 하는 순간에도 계속되는 기간에 일어난 상황의 표현에는 현재완료형을 사용합니다. (Unit 9B 참조)
    • I’ve drunk four cups of coffee today.
    • Have you had a vacation this year (yet)?
    • I haven’t seen Tom this morning. Have you?
    • Rob hasn’t studied very hard this semester.

  E

  •     “This is the first time I’ve driven a car.”
  • It’s the (first) time something has happened: 현재완료형으로 서수를 표현합니다.
    • Don is taking a driving lesson. It’s his first one. It’s the first time he has driven a car. (not drives)
      or   He has never driven a car before.
    • Sarah has lost her passport again. This is the second time this has happened. (not happens)
    • Bill is calling his girlfriend again. That’s the third time he’s called her tonight.

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