Unit 5 Simple Past (I did)

 단순과거형

  A

  • Wolfgang A. Mozart Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was an Austrian musician and composer. He lived from 1756 to 1791. He started composing at the age of five and wrote more than 600 pieces of music. He was only 35 years old when he died.
     
    lived/started/wrote/was/died 등이 단순과거형 (simple past)입니다.

 § 과거에 일어난 일·사건이 완결이 된 경우 (예: 한시간 전 / 이틀 전 / 한달 전 /10년 전에 일어난 일·사건들), 즉 과거의 행동·동작이 완결이 된 경우에는 현재(now)까지 그 행동·동작이 영향을 미치지 않습니다. 이런 경우 단순과거형을 사용합니다. 역사적 사실은 반드시 단순과거형을 사용하고, 시제의 일치에 영향을 받지 않고 항상 단순과거형을 사용합니다.

  B

  동사의 과거형

  • 단순과거형은 -ed (규칙변화 동사, regular verb) 형태로 끝나는 경우가 많습니다.
    • I work in a travel agency now. I worked in a department store before.
    • We invited them to our party, but they decided not to come.
    • The police stopped me on my way home last night.
    • Laura passed her exam because she studied very hard.
  • 과거형을 만드는 스펠링 규칙(stopped, studied 등)은 Appendix 6 참조.
  • 그러나 많은 동사들이 불규칙변화 동사 (irregular verb)입니다. 즉, 단순과거형이 -ed 형태로 끝나지 않는 것을 의미합니다.
    • write
    • see
    • go
    • shut
    • wrote
    • saw
    • went
    • shut
    • Mozart wrote more than 600 pieces of music.
    • We saw Rosa in town a few days ago.
    • I went to the movies three times last week.
    • I was cold, so I shut the window.
  • 불규칙변화 동사는 Appendix 1 참조.

 § 과거의 시점을 나타내는 부사[구/절](yesterday, ... ago 등)가 나오는 경우, 반드시 단순과거형을 사용합니다.
  - I didn’t work yesterday.
  - She went to Seoul three days ago.
  - When he finished his school, he was only 16 years old.
 yesterday, three days ago, when he finished his school 이 과거의 시점을 나타내는 부사[구/절]입니다.

  C

  • 단순과거형의 의문문과 부정문은 did / didn’t + 동사의 원형 (enjoy / see / go 등)입니다.
    I
    she
    they
    enjoyed
    saw
    went
      did you
    she
    they
    enjoy?
    see?
    go?
      I
    she
    they
    didn’t enjoy
    see
    go
    • A: Did you go out last night?
      B: Yes, I went to the movies, but I didn’t enjoy the film much.
    • “When did Mr. Thomas die?”  “About ten years ago.”
    • They didn’t invite her to the party, so she didn’t go.
    • Did you have time to write the letter?”  “No, I didn’t.”
  • do 가 본동사인 경우 (did . . . do / didn’t do):
    • What did you do on the weekend? (not What did you on the weekend?)
    • I didn’t do anything. (not I didn’t anything)

  D

  • be (am / is / are)동사의 과거형은 was / were 입니다.
    I/he/she/it
    we/you/they
    was/wasn’t
    were/weren’t
      was
    were
    I/he/she/it?
    we/you/they?
  • was / were 를 사용하는 부정문과 의문문에서는 did 를 사용하지 않습니다.
    • I was angry because they were late.
    • Was the weather good when you were on vacation?
    • They weren’t able to come because they were so busy.
    • Did you go out last night, or were you too tired?

 § 단순과거형의 용법:
 a) 과거의 사실·동작·상태
  - He relinquished all the rights to the property.
 b) 과거의 습관 (would / used to 를 사용할 수도 있습니다)
  - She often took her dog for a walk after dinner.
  - I would visit her every day except when it rained.
 c) 과거완료형 대체
  - The thieves got away before the police arrived.
  - I went out after I finished the work.


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