3. 분사 [Participle]
분사는 명사를 직접 수식하는 형용사로 사용되며 현재분사와 과거분사가 있다. 현재분사는 -ing 의 형태이고, 과거분사는 규칙변화를 하는 동사의 경우 -ed 의 형태로 되어 있고 그 용법은 다음과 같다.
a sleeping baby (자동사), fallen leaves (자동사)
an exciting story (타동사), a broken window (타동사)
분사가 보어, 목적어, 혹은 부사적 수식어구를 동반할 때에는 보통 명사의 뒤에서 수식한다.
• Who is that girl wearing an exotic hat? (목적어)
• Do you happen to know a stumpy man called Ben? (보어)
• You'd better take the train leaving at two. (부사구)
분사가 대명사를 수식할 때는 단독일 경우에도 뒤에 놓인다.
• Of those invited only a few came to the party.
• She acted like one overwhelmed.
• He kept walking in the same direction.
• The door remained locked for a long time.
• He sat at this desk surrounded by books and papers.
• I saw him snatching the handbag and running.
• I felt myself watched in the neck.
분사가 유도하는 구(句)가 주문을 부사적으로 수식, 그 분사구를 분사구문이라 한다.
Walking along the street, I ran into an old friend.
⇒ While I was walking along the street, ~
Left alone, she felt dead tired.
⇒ When she was left alone, ~
하나의 행위가 일어나고 있는 동안 다른 행위가 일어나는 경우 (~ing 를 계속해서 일어나고 있는 일에 사용)
Jim hurt his arm playing tennis.
⇒ . . . while he was playing.
Did you cut yourself shaving?
⇒ . . . while you were shaving.
Not knowing what to do, he asked me for help.
⇒ As he didn't know what to do, ~
Tired, I went to bed earlier than usual.
⇒ As I was tired, ~
Turning right, you'll find the post office on your right. ⇒ If you turn right, ~
Some books, read carelessly, will do more harm than good. ⇒ Some books, if they are read carelessly, ~
Admitting what you say, I still think you're wrong. ⇒ Though I admit what you say, ~
Born from the same parents, they bear no resemblance to each other. ⇒ Though they were born from the same parents, ~
Walking on tiptoe, I approached the window. ⇒ I walked on tiptoe and approached the window.
Singing and dancing together, we had a good time. ⇒ As we sang and danced, ~
The train starts at six, arriving there at ten. ⇒ The train starts at six, and arrives there at ten.
Carol is in the kitchen making coffee. (= she is in the kitchen and she is making coffee)
A man ran out of the house shouting. (= He ran out of the house and he was shouting)
분사구문이 나타내는 시간은 주절의 술부동사의 시제와 일치하지만, 그보다 앞선 시제를 나타낼 때는 완료 분사구문(having + pp) 을 사용한다.
Having received no answer from him, I faxed him again. ⇒ As I had received no answer from him, ~
접속사의 생략: 분사구문의 뜻이 때/이유/조건 등 어느 것인지 혼동을 방지하거나 생생한 표현을 위해 해당 접속사를 분사구문의 앞에 부가하는 경우가 있다.
While swimming in the river, he drowned.
분사구문에는 의미상의 주어가 있다. 이것이 주문의 주어와 같을 때는 나타낼 필요가 없지만, 다를 때는 분사의 앞에 분사의 주어를 첨가해 나타내 주어야 한다.
The sun having set, we gave up looking for them. ⇒ As the sun had set, ~
Night coming on, we left for home. ⇒ As night came on, ~
It being fine, we set out on a picnic. ⇒ As it was fine, ~
My knife slipping, I cut myself severely. ⇒ As my knife slipped, ~
We'll start tomorrow, weather permitting. ⇒ ~ , if (the) weather permits.
Other things being equal, I would prefer this one. ⇒ If other things were equal, ~
He was reading a book, his wife knitting beside him. ⇒ ~, and his wife was knitting beside him.
무인칭 독립 분사구문
독립분사구문은 의미상 주어가 필요하지만, 그것이 막연한 일반인을 나타낼 때는 생략할 수 있다.
Strictly speaking, he is an amateur, not a professional.
Judging from his accent, he must be a German.
Strictly speaking (엄격히 말해)
Judging from ~ (~으로 판단하건대)
Generally speaking (일반적으로 말해)
Taking all things into consideration (만사를 고려해보면)
-ing as it does 의 형태: as it does 는 분사구문의 뜻을 강조하기 위해 덧붙인 것이다.
Standing as it does on the hill, the villa commands a fine view.
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