Unit 133 Phrasal Verbs (get up / break down / fill in, etc.)

 구(句)동사

  A

동사와 같이 구동사¹(phrasal verb)를 만드는 단어들:

in
out
on
off
up
down
away
back
around
through
about
along
over
forward
by
 

put out / get on / take off / run away 등이 구동사(phrasal verb)입니다.
on/off/out 등을 동작을 나타내는 동사와 많이 사용합니다.

get on
drive off
come back
turn around
 • The bus was full. We couldn’t get on.
 • A woman got into the car and drove off.
 • Sally is leaving tomorrow and coming back on Saturday.
 • When I touched him on the shoulder, he turned around.

동사와 함께 사용하는 단어(on/off/out, etc.)로 특별한 의미를 갖는 동사가 많습니다.

break down
look out
take off
 
get up
get by
 • Sorry I’m late. The car broke down. (= the car stopped working)
 • Look out! There’s a car coming. (= be careful)
 • It was my first flight. I was nervous as the plane took off.
    (= went into the air)
 • I was very tired this morning. I couldn’t get up. (= get out of bed)
 • My Japanese isn’t very good, but it’s enough to get by. (= to manage)

 § ¹ 동사 + 부사/전치사 형태를 구동사라고 하며 구동사(동사 + 부사) + 전치사 형태도 있습니다. 이어(二語)동사라고 부르기도 합니다.
 § 동사에 따라서 자동사와 타동사의 의미가 다른 것도 있습니다.
  - The engine cut out and the car stopped.
  - I cut the picture out of the magazine.

  B

구동사 + 전치사(preposition) 구조:

phrasal verb preposition
run away
keep up
look forward
from
with
to
 • Why did you run away from me?
 • You’re walking too fast. I can’t keep up with you.
 • Are you looking forward to the weekend?

  C

목적어를 취하는 구동사의 경우 두가지 형태가 가능합니다.

I turned off
 
the light.
  object
or
 
I turned
 
the light off.
  object

목적어가 대명사(it/them/me/him, etc.)인 경우에는 한가지 형태로만 사용합니다.²
     • I turned it off. (not I turned off it)

 • Could you fill out this form?
fill this form out?
but They gave me a form and told me to fill it out. (not fill out it)
 • The police got into the house by breaking down the door.
breaking the door down.
but The door wasn’t locked. Why did the police break it down? (not break down it)
 • I think I’ll throw away these newspapers.
throw these newspapers away.
but Do you want these newspapers, or should I throw them away? (not throw away them)
 • Don’t wake up the baby.
wake the baby up.
but The baby is asleep. Don’t wake her up. (not wake up her)

 § ² 목적어가 반드시 동사와 부사의 사이에 놓이는 경우도 있습니다.
  - I just couldn’t tell the twins apart. (not . . . tell apart the twins)
catch out, hear out, order about, pull to, push to, shut up, stand up 등이 이와 같은 구동사입니다.
 § 목적어가 길어지게 되면 ’동사 + 부사 + 목적어’의 형태로 사용합니다.
  - I had to clean the kitchen up. (or clean up the kitchen.) but I had to clean up the mess in the kitchen.


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