Unit 71 Adjectives and adverbs
- 일부 방법을 표현하는 부사는 adjective + ly 형태입니다. sudden → suddenly, happy → happily 등이 여기에 해당합니다. cowardly, elderly, friendly, kindly, lively, lonely, lovely 등과 같이 ly 로 끝나는 형태의 형용사는 ly 를 붙여서 부사를 만들지 않고 fashion, manner, way 가 들어 있는 전치사구를 사용합니다.
- He smiled at me in a friendly way.
- She waved her hands around in a lively fashion.
- -ed 로 끝나는 분사 형용사(Unit 69 참조)는 부사 형태가 없으므로 전치사구를 사용합니다.
- They rose to greet me in a subdued manner. (not …subduedly)
- He faced the court in a dignified fashion. (not …dignifiedly)
- 또는 분사 형용사와 관련이 있는 명사가 있으면 전치사와 함께 그 명사를 사용합니다.
- She looked at me in amazement. (not …amazedly.)
- He was overwhelmed with confusion. (not …confusedly.)
- 그러나 일부 분사 형용사는 -ly 형태의 부사가 있습니다. 비교:
- The storm was unexpected. and
- The weather turned unexpectedly stormy.
- 이런 부사로는 agitatedly, allegedly, deservedly, determinedly, disappointedly, excitedly, hurriedly, pointedly, reportedly, reputedly, supposedly, worriedly 등이 있습니다.
- 일부 부사는 -ly 로 끝나는 부사와 그렇지 않은 부사의 두가지 형태를 갖고 있습니다. 둘 중의 어느 것을 사용해도 의미의 변화 없이 사용할 수 있지만 -ly 로 끝나는 부사가 문법상 정확하고 격식을 갖춘 경우에 일반적으로 사용합니다.
- She ran quick/quickly towards the door. (‘quick’ is less formal)
- 동사 바로 앞에 나오는 경우에는 반드시 -ly 형태의 부사를 사용합니다.
- She quickly ran towards the door. (not She quick ran…)
- 이런 부사로는 cheap(ly), clean(ly), clear(ly), fine(ly), loud(ly), slow(ly), thin(ly) 등이 있습니다.
- -ly 로 끝나는 부사와 그렇지 않은 부사의 두가지 형태가 다른 의미를 갖는 경우도 있습니다. 비교:
- She gave her time free. (= for no money) and She gave her time freely. (= willingly)
- I arrived late for the concert. (= not on time) and I haven’t seen John lately (= recently)
- 이와 같이 다른 의미를 갖는 부사들입니다. 비교:
- He wandered deep into the forest and got lost. (= a long way)
- He felt deeply hurt by his criticisms. (= very)
- They loved each other deeply. (= very much)
- ‘You don’t have to change trains.’
‘You can go direct.’ (= without stopping)
- I’ll be with you directly. (= very soon)
- He saw Susan directly ahead. (= straight)
- It sounded awful – one of the choir members was singing flat.
- This time I flatly refused to lend him any money. (= definitely; completely)
- He kicked the ball high over the goal.
- Everyone thinks highly of her teaching.
(= they think her teaching is very good)
- ‘Is Bob here yet?’ ‘He’s just arrived.’
- She looks just like her mother.
- You can be justly proud of your musical achievements. (= rightly; justifiably)
- Which of these cheeses do you like most?
- Her novels are now mostly out of print. (= most of them)
- We mostly go on holiday in France. (= usually)
- They cut short their holiday when John fell ill. (= went home early)
- The speaker will be arriving shortly (= soon). Please take your seats.
- The door was wide open so I just went straight in. (= completely)
- You won’t have any problems getting the book. It’s widely available. (= in many places)