Unit 70 Adjective + to-infinitive, -ing, that-clause, wh-clause
- 형용사가 appear, be, become, seem 등의 계사 (Unit 21 참조) 다음에 나오는 경우 형용사 다음에 to-infinitive, -ing, that-clause, wh-clause 등의 여러가지 형태를 사용할 수 있습니다. (It + linking verb + adjective 에 대해서는 Section B 참조)
adjective + example adjectives used in this pattern i to-infinitive
- You’re free to leave any time you want.
(un)able, careful, crazy, curious, difficult, easy, foolish, free, good, hard, impossible, inclined, mad, nice, prepared, ready, stupid, welcome, willing ii -ing
- He was busy doing his homework.
busy, crazy, foolish, mad, stupid; (after the verb feel) awful, awkward, bad, good, guilty, terrible iii that-clause
- He became worried (that) she might leap out from behind a door.
afraid, alarmed, amazed, angry, annoyed, ashamed, astonished, aware, concerned, disappointed, glad, (un)happy, pleased, shocked, sorry, upset, worried; certain, confident, positive, sure iv wh-clause
- I’m not certain (of/ about) why he wants to borrow the money.
afraid, not aware/unaware, not certain/uncertain, doubtful, not sure/unsure, worried v to-infinitive or that-clause
- She was afraid to say anything.
- I was afraid that I would be late.
the adjectives in iii above, except aware, confident and positive vi to-infinitive or -ing
- He’d be stupid to leave now.
- He’d be stupid giving up the job.
crazy, foolish, mad, stupid vii -ing or that-clause
- She felt awful leaving him with all the clearing up.
- She felt awful that she wasn’t able to help.
(after the verb feel) awful, awkward, bad, good, guilty, terrible
B It + linking verb + adjective
- subject + linking verb + adjective + to-infinitive (Units 96-97 참조) 구조 대신에 it + linking verb + adjective + to-infinitive 형태를 사용하기도 합니다. 비교:
- She is easy to understand. and It is easy to understand her.
- The fireworks were amazing to watch. and It was amazing to watch the fireworks.
- 격식을 갖추지 않는 경우에 to-infinitive 대신에 -ing 를 사용할 수 있습니다.
- It is easy understanding her.
- It was amazing watching the fireworks.
- 위와 같은 구조로 사용할 수 있는 형용사로는 annoying, awkward, easy, good, interesting, lovely, simple, terrific, wonderful 등이 있습니다. 형용사 + wh- 또는 that- 절의 구조를 유사한 의미로 사용할 수 있습니다. (Unit 96A 참조)
- It is not clear why he did it.
- It was odd that she left so suddenly.
- 형용사와 to-infinitive 사이에 of + subject 를 사용하는 형용사들이 있습니다.
- It was rude (of them) to criticise her. (or They were rude to criticise her.)
- 위와 같이 of + subject 를 사용하는 형용사로는 brave, kind, mean, thoughtful, unprofessional, unreasonable 등이 있습니다.
상황에 대한 반응을 표현하는 경우 it + make + 형용사 다음에 to-infinitive, -ing, that-clause 등을 사용합니다.
- It made me angry (to discover) that so much money was wasted. (or It made me angry discovering that…; or I was angry to discover that…)
- 이와 같이 사용할 수 있는 형용사로는 ashamed, furious, glad, miserable, nervous, sad, tired, uncomfortable 등이 있습니다.