Unit 68 Gradable and non-gradable adjectives (2)


  • 일부 형용사는 gradablenon-gradable 의 의미를 갖고 있습니다.
    (i) 일부 형용사는 gradable 인 경우와 non-gradable 인 경우의 의미가 다릅니다. 비교:
    • Smith is a very common name. (= frequently found; gradable) and
    • We have a lot of common interests. (= shared; non-gradable; not very)
    • The house is very old. (= existed many years; gradable) and
    • I met my old politics professor the other day. (= former; non-gradable; not very)
    • Sue’s shoes are very clean. (= not dirty; gradable) and
    • He left the town because he wanted to make a clean break with the past. (= starting again in different circumstances; non-gradable; not very)
  • 위와 같은 형용사로는 civil, clean, critical, electric (= ‘exciting’ when gradable), empty, false, late, odd, original, particular, straight 등이 있습니다.
    (ii) 일부 형용사는 gradable 인 경우와 non-gradable 인 경우의 의미가 비슷합니다. 그러나 gradable 형용사인 경우에는 사람·사물의 성질을 표현하는 정성(定性) 형용사(qualitative adjective)이고 부사와 함께 사용할 수 있고, non-gradable 형용사인 경우에는 종류나 형태를 표현하는 분류 형용사(classifying adjective)입니다. 비교:
    • I don’t know where he came from, but he sounded slightly foreign. (= not from this country; gradable) and
    • She is now advising on the government’s foreign policy. (= concerning other countries; non-gradable)
    • They had a very public argument. (= seen/heard by a lot of people; gradable) and
    • He was forced to resign by public pressure. (= from many people in the community; non-gradable)
    • She had a rather wild look in her eyes. (= uncontrolled or frightened; gradable) and
    • Even if it is raised by humans, a lion will always be a wild animal. (= not tame; non-gradable)
  • 위와 같은 형용사로는 academic, adult, average, diplomatic, genuine, guilty, human, individual, innocent, mobile, private, professional, scientific, technical, true 등이 있습니다.
    (iii) 국가며의 고유 형용사가 non-gradable 형용사로 사용되는 경우 사람 또는 사물이 그 국가 출신이라는 것을 표현하고, gradable 형용사로 사용되는 경우 그 국가의 특징·특성을 갖고 있다는 것을 표현합니다. 비교:
    • There’s a shop around the corner that sells Italian bread. and
    • Giovanni has lived in Britain for 20 years, but he’s still very Italian.


  • 특히 회화체에서 good and…, lovely and…, nice and… 등의 표현 다음에 gradable 형용사를 사용해서 두번째 형용사를 강조합니다. 이와 같은 예로는 good and ready 가 있고 좀더 일상회화체로 good and proper/relaxed/strong (but not usually ‘good and beautiful/rich/tall’); lovely and cosy/dry/sunny/warm (but not usually ‘lovely and decent/empty/short’); nice and bright/clean/cold/comfortable/early/fresh/quiet/simple/soft/tidy/warm (but not usually ‘nice and interesting/handsome/excitin’) 등이 있습니다.
    • If you’re all feeling good and relaxed after the break, let’s get on with the meeting.
    • It’s lovely and warm in here. Freezing outside, though.
    • ‘Shall we get some strawberries?’ ‘Yes, they look nice and fresh.’
  • 또한 형용사의 비교급(Unit 72 참조)을 and 로 연결해서 형용사에 나타난 정도나 성질이 증가하는 것을 표현합니다. more and more + 형용사 구조로 위의 경우와 비슷하게 사용합니다.
    • As she got more and more excited, her voice got higher and higher and louder and louder.
    • The taxi driver just drove faster and faster and faster until I told him to stop, and I got out.

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