Unit 62 So and not as subtitutes for clauses, etc.


  • 형용사와 부사, 또는 절을 대신해서 so 를 사용할 수 있습니다.
    • The workers were angry and they had every right to be so. (= angry)
    • John took the work seriously and Petra perhaps even more so. (= took the work seriously)
    • Bob’s giving us a lift. At least I presume so. (= that he’s giving us a lift)


  • be afraid (expressing regret), appear/seem (after ‘it’), assume, believe, expect, guess, hope, imagine, presume, suppose, suspect, think 등의 동사들 다음에 나오는 절을 대신해서 so 를 자주 사용하고 saytell 다음에도 절을 대신해서 사용합니다. tell 의 경우는 간접목적어가 있어야 합니다.
    • ‘Is Tony going back to Scotland to see his parents this summer?’ ‘I’ve no idea, but I would imagine so. He goes most years.’
    • I found it ridiculous, and said so./…and told them so. (= that I found it ridiculous)
  • accept, admit, agree, be certain, doubt, hear, know, promise, suggest, be sure 등의 동사 다음에는 so 를 사용하지 않습니다.
    • Liz will organise the party. She promised (that) she would. (not She promised so.)
    • ‘Will Ken know how to mend it?’ ‘I doubt it./ I doubt (that) he will.’ (not I doubt so.)
  • 격식을 갖추지 않은 영어에서, 특히 논쟁에서 ‘I know so.’ 를 사용할 수 있습니다.


  • 부정문에서 not 또는 notso 를 사용합니다.
    • Is the Socialist Party offering anything new its statement? It would appear not.
    • They want to buy the house, although they didn’t say so directly.
  • appear, seem, suppose 등의 동사는 not 또는 notso 를 사용할 수 있습니다.
    • ‘ I don’t suppose there’ll be any seats left.’ ‘No, I don’t suppose so.’ (or …I suppose not.)
  • believe, expect, imagine, think 등의 동사는 notso 를 주로 사용합니다. not 는 격식을 갖추는 경우입니다.
    • ‘Will we need to show our passports at the border?’ ‘I don’t think so.’ (rather than I think not.)
  • be afraid (expressing regret), assume, guess (in the phrase ‘I guess…’, = ‘I think…’), hope, presume, suspect 등은 not 를 사용합니다.
    • ‘You’d better do it yourself. Brian won’t help.’ ‘No, I guess not.’ (not No, I don’t guess so.)
  • say 와 함께 사용하는 not (to) 와 notso 의 비교:
    • ‘Do we have to do all ten questions?‘ ‘The teacher said not.’ (= the teacher said that we didn’t have to) or ‘The teacher said not to.’ (= the teacher said that we shouldn’t)
    • ‘Do we have to do all ten questions?‘ ‘The teacher didn’t say so.‘ (= the teacher didn’t say that we should do all ten, but perhaps we should)


  • 사실인 것을 알게 되었거나, 말을 듣고나서 사실인 것을 알게 되었거나, 특히 사실인 것을 알고 놀란 경우에 ‘Yes, …‘ 형태의 짧은 대답 대신에 so 를 사용합니다. 구조는 so + pronoun (대명사) + auxiliary verb (조동사) 입니다.
    • ‘Jack and Martha are here.’ ‘So they are.‘ (or Yes, they are.) (= I can see that, too, now)
  • 그러나 이미 알고 있었던 것을 표현하기 위해서는 ‘So…’ 를 사용하지 않고 ‘Yes, …’ 를 사용합니다. 비교:
    • ‘Your bike’s been moved.’ ‘So it has./Yes, it has. I wonder who did it.’ (= I didn’t know before you told me) and
    • ‘Your bike’s been moved.’ ‘Yes, it has. Philip borrowed it this morning.’ (= I knew before you told me; not So it has.)


  • appear (after ‘it’), believe, gather, hear, hear, say, seem, tell (예: So she tells me) 등도 D 의 짦은 대답 형태를 사용할 수 있습니다. 그러나 의미는 그와는 반대로 ‘I knew before you told me’ 입니다.
    • ‘The factory is going to close.’ ‘So I understand.’ (= I’ve heard that news, too)
    • ‘I found that lecture really boring.’ ‘So I gather. (= I knew that) I saw you sleeping.’

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