Unit 59 Participle clauses with adverbial meaning (2)


  • after, before, by, in, on, since, through, while, with, without 등의 전치사를 현재분사 (-ing) 구와 같이 사용해서 부사어의 역할을 합니다. (Unit 58 참조)
    • While understanding her problem, I don’t know how I can help. (= Although I understand…)
    • After spending so much money on the car, I can’t afford a holiday.
    • Before being changed last year, the speed limit was 70 kph. (수동형)
  • 격식을 갖추지 않은 경우 위의 구조를 표현하는 방법은 주절의 주어와 동사의 시제에 따르는 동사를 포함한 절의 사용입니다.
    • Since moving to London, we haven’t had time to go to the theatre. and
    • Since we moved to London, we haven’t had time to go to the theatre. (less formal)

  B     by, in, on + -ing

    • By working hard, she passed her maths exam.
    • They only survived by eating roots and berries in the forest.
    = the -ing clause indicates ‘the method or means used’
    • On returning from Beijing, he wrote to the Chinese embassy.
    • John was the first person I saw on leaving hospital.
    = the -ing clause indicates ‘when’
    • In criticising the painting, I knew I would offend her.
    • In choosing Marco, the People’s Party has moved to the left.
    = the -ing clause indicates ‘cause’
  • by + -ingin + -ing 의 표현을 유사한 뜻으로 사용할 수 있지만 격식을 갖추지 않은 경우에는 주로 by + -ing 를 사용합니다.
    • In/By writing the essay about Spanish culture, I came to understand the country better.
      (‘In writing…’ = writing 의 결과가 이해하는 것이었고, ‘By writing…&rsquuo; = 이해하는 데 사용한 방법이 writing 이었음)
  • 비교:
    • By telephoning every hour, she managed to speak to the doctor. (not In telephoning…; 결과가 아닌 수단)

  C     with -ing; without -ing

  • with + -ing 로 주절에 대한 이유를 표현하는 경우가 많고 이 방법은 주로 격식을 갖추지 않은 경우입니다. 주어가 있을 경우 반드시 with 와 -ing 사이에 놓습니다.
    • With Louise living in Spain, we don’t see her often. (= Because Louise lives in Spain…)
    • With sunshine streaming through the window, Hugh found it impossible to sleep. (= Because the sunshine was streaming…)
  • withwhat with + 명사어의 구조로 이유를 표현할 수 있습니다.
    • With my bad back I won’t be able to lift a heavy suitcase.
    • What with the traffic and the heavy rain, it’s no wonder you were late.
  • without + ing 로 일어나지 않는 행동·동작을 표현합니다.
    • I went to work without eating breakfast.
    • They left without paying.
  • 그러나, without + ing 는 ‘although…not’ 또는 ‘unless’ 의 의미로 자주 사용합니다.
    • Without meaning to, I seem to have offended her. (= Although I didn’t mean to…)
    • Without seeing the photo, I can’t judge how good it is. (= Unless I see the photo…)


  • 동사 없이 접속사 또는 형용사로 시작하는 부사구를 사용할 수 있습니다. 이런 부사구는 접속사 + 주어 + be 동사 구조의 절과 의미가 동일합니다. 이런 구조는 상당히 격식을 갖춘 영어입니다. 다음 예문에서 괄호 안에 격식을 갖추지 않은 경우가 있습니다.
    • While in Poland, they will play two concerts in Warsaw. (or While they are in Poland…)
    • Although just two feet apart, they didn’t speak. (or Although they were just…)
    • I try to use public transport whenever possible. (orwhenever it is possible.)
    • Unhappy with the decision, Johnson swore at the referee. (or Because he was unhappy…)
    • James relaxed, pleased with his day’s work. (orbecause he was pleased…)

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