Unit 56 Other ways of adding information to noun phrases (1): additional noun phrases, etc.

  A

  • 사람·사물을 나타내는 명사어 바로 뒤에 다른 방법으로 동일한 사람·사물을 수식하는 명사어를 사용해서 추가 정보를 제공합니다.
    • A hooded cobra, one of the world’s most dangerous snakes, has escaped from Dudley Zoo.
    • Dr Alex Parr, director of the State Museum, is to become the government’s arts adviser.
    • When Tom fell off his bike we gave him arnica, a medicine made from a flower, for the bruising.
  • 글에서는 comma(,)로 부가 수식하는 명사어를 구별하고, 회화에서는 말을 멈추거나 억양의 변화로 구별합니다. 그러나, 부가 수식하는 명사어가 제한적 용법의 관계절 역할을 하고, 주로 이름인 경우 글에서의 구두점이나 회화에서의 멈춤이나 억양 변화가 필요없습니다.
    • My friend Jim has moved to Sweden. (rather than My friend, Jim, …)
    • The current champion is expected to survive her first-round match with the Italian Silvia Farina. (rather than …the Italian, Silvia Farina.)

  B

  • and 또는 or 의 접속사를 사용해서 부가적인 정보를 제공하는 명사어를 사용할 수 있습니다.
    • Kurt Svensson, her teacher and well-known concert pianist, thinks that she was great talent. (= her teacher is also a well-known concert pianist)
    • My business partner and great friend Tom Edwards is getting married today.
    • Phonetics or the study of speech sounds is a common component on courses in teaching English as a foreign language.

  C

  • 부사 namely 와 관용표현 that is 를 사용해서 명사어에 대한 부가적인 정보를 제공합니다.
    • This side-effect of the treatment, namely weight gain, is counteracted with other drugs.
    • The main cause of global warming, that is the burning of fossil fuels, is to be the focus of negotiations at the international conference.

  D

  • -ing, -ed, being + -ed 등으로 시작하는 분사구문으로 명사어에 대한 부가적인 정보를 제공할 수 있습니다. 이런 분사구문은 제한적 관계절 (defining relative clause)과 유사합니다. (GR: J1-2 참조)
    • Any passengers travelling to Cambridge should sit in the first two carriages of the train. (or Any passengers who are travelling…)
    • The people living next door come from Italy. (or The people who are living next door…)
    • The weapon used in the murder has now been found. (or The weapon that was used…)
    • The book published last week is his first novel. (or The book that was published last week…)
    • The prisoners being released are all women. (or The prisoners who are being released…)
    • The boys being chosen for the team are under 9. (or The boys who are being chosen…)
  • -ing 로 시작하는 분사구문은 능동형의 제한적 관계절과, -edbeing + -ed 로 시작하는 분사구문은 수동형의 제한적 관계절과 상응합니다.
    다음과 같이 부정사 구문 (to-infinitive clause)을 사용할 수 있습니다.
    • Have you brought a book to read? (= you bring it and you read it)
    • Have you brought a book for Kevin to read? (= you bring it and Kevin reads it)
    • My decision to resign from the company was made after a great deal of thought.
    • I thought that the decision of the committee, to increase staff holidays, was a good one.

  E

  • 문어체의 영어에서, 특히 신문에서 게속적 관계절 (non-defining relative clause) 대신에 -ing-ed 로 시작하는 분사구문을 사용합니다. 이런 구문은 주로 comma(,) 사이에 들어가거나 dash (–) 사이에 들어갑니다.
    • The men, wearing anoraks and hats, made off in a stolen Volvo estate.
    • The proposals – expected to be agreed by ministers – are less critical than many employers had feared.

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