Unit 25 Reporting with passive verbs; It is said that...

  A

  • 사람들이 말하고 생각하는 것을 전하기 위해, 특히 말하거나 생각한 사람이 중요하지 않은 경우에 수동태로 전달하는 표현을 합니다.
    • People in the area have been told that they should stay indoors.
    • Everyone was asked to bring some food to the party.

  B

  • it + passive verb + that-clause 형태로 불특정 다수의 말을 전달합니다. (that 절에 대해서는 Unit 33 참조) 이런 구조를 사용함으로써 중요한 정보를 문장의 뒷부분에 놓을 수 있습니다. (Unit 24C 참조)
    • It is reported that the damage is extensive. (compare The damage is extensive, according to government sources.)
    • It has been acknowledged that underfunding contributed to the problem.
    • It was decided that the meeting should be cancelled. (or It was decided to cancel the meeting.)
  • 위의 형태로 사용할 수 있는 동사로는:
    allege, announce, assume, believe, calculate, claim, consider, demonstrate, discover, establish, estimate, expect, feel, find, know, mention, recommend, reveal, say, show, suggest, suppose, think, understand 등이 있습니다. agree, decide, hope, intend, plan, propose 등의 동사는 to-infinitive 또한 사용할 수 있습니다.
  • it + passive verb + that-clause 형태를 사용하지 않는 동사로는 encourage, inform, persuade, reassure, remind, tell, warm 등이 있고 A 의 예문 형태로 전달합니다.
    • We have been informed that we have to leave. (but not It has informed us…)

  C

  • 문장의 주제를 주어로 사용하기 위해 it + passive verb + that-clause 대신에 subject + passive + to-infinitive 형태를 사용합니다. (Unit 24C 참조)
    • It is reported that the damage is extensive. and
    • The damage is reported to be extensive.
    • It has been acknowledged that underfunding contributed to the problem. and
    • Underfunding has been acknowledged to have contributed to the problem.
  • B 의 리스트에서 announce, decide, mention, propose, recommend, suggest 를 제외한 동사들도 이 형태를 사용할 수 있습니다.
    tell 의 의미가 ‘order’ 인 경우에만 위의 형태를 사용할 수 있습니다.
    • I was told (= ordered) to go with them to the railway station.
  • ‘The accident was told (= said) to have happened just after midnight’ 이라고는 할 수 없습니다.

  D

  • discover, estDblish, explain, find, know, reveal, show, understand 등의 동사는 it + passive verb + wh-clause 형태로 얻은 정보 또는 알아낸 정보를 전달합니다.
    • It has now been revealed who was responsible for the accident.
    • The decision to build the bridge was taken before it was established whether it was actually needed.

  E

  • that-clause 의 시작이 that + there… 인 경우 there + passive verb + to be/to have been 형태를 사용할 수 있습니다.
    • It is thought (that) there are too many obstacles to peace. and
    • There are thought to be too many obstacles to peace.
    • In 1981 it was believed (that) there were only two experts on the disease in the country. and
    • In 1981 there were believed to be only two experts on the disease in the country.
  • 위의 동사들은 subject + passive verb + to-infinitive 형태로 사용할 수 있습니다. (Section C 참조)

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