Unit 7 Past perfect continuous, past perfect and past continuous


  • 과거완료진행형은 과거의 특정한 시점까지 혹은 그 시점 직전까지 계속해서 일어나고 있던 일을 표현하고, 과거완료형은 과거의 특정한 시점 이전에 이미 마친 일을 표현합니다.
    • I’d been finishing some work in the garden when Sue arrived, so I didn’t hear her come in. (not I’d finished…) and
    • I’d finished all the ironing so I started cleaning the windows. (not I’d been finishing…)
  • 과거완료형과 과거완료진행형의 차이가 없는 경우도 있습니다.
    • I’d been working / I’d worked hard all year, so I felt that I deserved a holiday.


  • 과거의 특정한 시점까지 기간에 어떤 일이 몇번 일어난 경우는 과거완료형으로 표현합니다.
    • How many times had you met him before yesterday? (not …had you been meeting…)
    • I had stayed in the hotel twice in the 1980s. (not I had ben staying…)


  • 과거완료진행형은 과거의 특정한 한시점까지 계속되었던 상황/행동에 대해 표현합니다. (i) 그 시점에 끝이 났거나, (ii) 그 시점을 지나 계속되었거나, (iii) 그 시점 직전에 끝이 난 경우에 사용합니다.
    • (i) We’d been driving for about an hour when the engine suddenly stopped.
    • (ii) She felt terrible during the interview because she had been suffering from flu since the previous day.
    • (iii) When I last saw John, he’d been running and was out of breath.
  • 과거의 상황/행동이 얼마나 지속되었는지 표현할 필요가 없으면 과거완료진행형 대신에 과거진행형을 사용합니다.
    • When the merger was announced it became apparent that the two companies had been discussing the possibility since last year. and
    • A friend told me about a conversation she’d recently overheard. Two women were discussing their holiday plans…
    • I first met Steve and Jane when they had been going out together for five years, and they didn’t get married for another three years after that. and
    • Emma met Graham when she was going out with his best friend.


  • 상태동사의 경우, 과거의 특정한 시점까지 상황이 얼마나 오래 지속되었는지 표현하고자 할 때에도 과거완료형을 사용합니다. 상태동사는 진행형을 사용하지 않습니다. (Unit 1 참조)
    • We had owned the car for 6 months before we discovered it was stolen. (not We had been owning…)


  • 과거완료진행형은 구어체보다 문어체에서 주로 많이 사용합니다. 다음은 신문기사에 나타난 과거완료진행형의 용례입니다.
    • The body of a climber who went missing in the Alps was finally found yesterday. Carl Sims had been climbing alone in the dangerous area of Harz Waterfall, which has claimed many lives in the past.
    • A spokesman for the company said Morgan hadn’t been working for them long and wasn’t familiar with safety procedures: ‘It was an unfortunate incident…’

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